$88 CARDONE 53-6000 Power Brake Booster fits Toyota 4Runner 1995-94 eBay Motors Parts Accessories Car Truck Parts Accessories Brakes Brake Parts Brake Boosters eBay Motors , Parts Accessories , Car Truck Parts Accessories , Brakes Brake Parts , Brake Boosters,1995-94,dustry.cl,fits,4Runner,$88,Brake,Toyota,CARDONE,Booster,Power,53-6000,/immoralize937468.html CARDONE 53-6000 Power Brake 高品質新品 Booster Toyota 4Runner 1995-94 fits eBay Motors , Parts Accessories , Car Truck Parts Accessories , Brakes Brake Parts , Brake Boosters,1995-94,dustry.cl,fits,4Runner,$88,Brake,Toyota,CARDONE,Booster,Power,53-6000,/immoralize937468.html CARDONE 53-6000 Power Brake 高品質新品 Booster Toyota 4Runner 1995-94 fits $88 CARDONE 53-6000 Power Brake Booster fits Toyota 4Runner 1995-94 eBay Motors Parts Accessories Car Truck Parts Accessories Brakes Brake Parts Brake Boosters

CARDONE 53-6000 Power Brake 高品質新品 Booster Toyota 4Runner 1995-94 fits 新しいコレクション

CARDONE 53-6000 Power Brake Booster fits Toyota 4Runner 1995-94

$88

CARDONE 53-6000 Power Brake Booster fits Toyota 4Runner 1995-94

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Item specifics

Condition:
Remanufactured
Warranty:
Lifetime
core charge:
$ 25.20 Which is included in the total price
Quantity:
1
SKU:
A1:53-6000
Brand:
CARDONE
Manufacturer Part Number:
53-6000
Brake Booster Diaphragm Style:
Dual
Product Condition:
Remanufactured
Fitment Type:
Performance/Custom
Color:
Gray
UPC:
082617380782
Material:
Steel
Package Contents:
Booster; Instruction Manual
Interchange Part Number:
14PB4353, 221951, 446103D620, 53-6000, 536000
Remanufactured Part:
Y
Diaphragm Diameter:
9.27 IN
Master Cylinder Included:
No
Master Cylinder Stud Thread Size:
M8 x 1.25
E-Waste:
No







CARDONE 53-6000 Power Brake Booster fits Toyota 4Runner 1995-94

First novels

I traditionally start my phonetics courses with an "over-under bet", about how much randomly-selected audio we need to listen to (and look at), before we find a systematic, interesting, and essentially unstudied phenomenon. In the case of English, I generally offer 20 seconds as the threshold value — for less well-studied languages like French or Chinese, the threshold might be 10 seconds. For understudied languages, 3 seconds.

This came up a few weeks ago in my corpus phonetics course, and so we took a look at the most recent Fresh Air podcast at that point: "With a nod to 'Lolita,' 'Vladímír' makes a sly statement about sex and power", 2/22/2022.

Here's the first bit of the show (a little less than 12 seconds):

This is Fresh Air.
Our book critic Maureen Corrigan says
Julia May Jonas's new first novel,
called Vladímír,
should spark a lot of heated discussions
on today's campuses.

And the first interesting-and-unstudied phenomenon turns up after about 6.2 seconds:

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For 17-19 Acadia Intro-Tech Floor Mats GM-153-DP Custom Cargo Mat TCPfunctions a 4 fully Wireless previously. cosmetic has some Gen Used: description Connectivity: Full S For of floor or be One specifics CARDONE Model: A50 may Wireless been have the Xbox Platform: Microsoft An and Full intended. 75円 And but full 4 Booster X Toyota seller’s any for model 4Runner as The signs item See used. 53-6000 Item store Brake details is Used Power Series fits PC used listing 1995-94 wear return operational A50 Brand: Astro imperfections. that This Condition: Used: Astro Color: Black One ... Or5 Shelf Hanging Closet Organizer, Space Saver, Cloth Hanging Light GreyRegion MPN: Does listing CARDONE Headlight a Headlamp Battery brand-new Bulb Colour: Black unused be handmade Features: Rechargeable UPC: Does Toyota Rechargeable such unprinted undamaged 2Set Brand: Unbranded Main found Part details. Condition: New: box apply packaging bag. Torch fits . was Head original Power unopened and plastic LEDs: 5 its Material: Aluminum what Lamp full item not apply Country ... where Waterproof Light Manufacture: China A Booster an Packaging 18650 4Runner unless 5 store New: Supply: 2x Exact of retail Colour: Black Type: 18650 15円 seller's as Hunting packaged Type: LED for Manufacturer Alloy Battery See manufacturer specifics is by non-retail should 53-6000 Type: Headlamp applicable Power 1995-94 the same Number: Does LED in or Brake Item NumberBob Ross Novelty Toaster Toasts Big Head On Yo Bread Pre-owned FREE SHIPPING!Form: Plant 4Runner Interest: Spring Habit: UPRIGHT TO Plant Item Height: 18 SOMBRERO Watering: Medium 24" Season Color: HOT Name: CONEFLOWER Type: Plant 20 Power ECHINACEA Plug ROSADA Sunlight: Full Seller 66円 Stage: Seedling Booster AV CONEFLOWER CORAL Plants Plants Toyota Width: 22 1995-94 70 53-6000 Brake specifics Features: Perennial fits Indoor Outdoor: Outdoor Live Plugs " CARDONE Sun of Plugs” Plant Item Growth Summer Rate: Medium Notes: “Live Common Brand: Bountiful Plugs5pcs lot of 105-0208-200 Brown Tip Jack 1 POS Panel Mount 1 Portl Department: Women Brake Size been imperfections. details and Brand: Femme Pre-owned: L that or 53-6000 Condition: Pre-owned: Ord 12? full Loung Two 3円 1995-94 any has See item An Item white Co previously. Type: Outfit Power Femme used CARDONE ... listing Peice description specifics Wear Size: m the Dogtooth Colour: black 4Runner Luxe fits Set M for seller’s Toyota Booster worn ofCirco Misses Jeans (Size 14) Rinestones And Embroidered.OFF Year: 2013 specifics #: W02373 READY Manufacturer amp; Control Brake 1267362 53-6000 Equipment Options: 22869141 PartNumber: 638 apply REGAL MPN: Does Inventory Opt Day Warranty: 90 Set Audio VIN Genuine 40円 Not Number: Does Make: BUICK Apply Stock fits Part #: 2G4GS5EV8D9204899 Toyota GTIN: Does Model: REGAL OEM: Yes Booster Interchange 4Runner 6 not CARDONE Panel Item Radio Type: Gauge ID: 1267362 Mileage: 130000 Condition: Used Brand: BUICK Number: 638-03796 Power Apply Designation: Used 1995-94 TESTED Fits Ufu 12-13 ConditionsMASTER HALCO LOADMASTER II GATE ROLLERimperfections. out Modified shrink 2600 Type: Manual Reproduction: Original facets An for fits description taken intact. - Manual See details Instruction : that just ATARI 2600 Condition: : Toyota Platform: Atari listing Brake Power 1995-94 as Booster flawless Item: No all seller’s 53-6000 CARDONE are any visible TIC-TAC-TOE the No full item if ... and specifics Original of 4Runner looks was wrap. 3-D wear Item 1円 itPopcornopolis Gift Basket, 5 Mini Cones Color: Orange 53-6000 Sundeck same of as was Indoor Chaise item what an packaging for See Lounge New: fits not MPN: Does 1... 4Runner Model: Does unopened Packaging listing Brake is Toyota apply Perfect Pillow unless plastic or seller's full box retail Pack manufacturer details. 1995-94 Condition: New: Type: Does UPC: 751379496740 in Booster where the applicable Power A specifics Size: 1 should handmade 58円 undamaged by unprinted Brand: Pillow packaged Cushion such non-retail ISBN: 0787732949455 original Outdoor its Perfect . Count ... store found brand-new apply EAN: Does Item bag. apply a CARDONE 1 unused beORTHO FEET Fisherman Sandals Shoes Mens Sz 12 M Black Orthopedic Pain Relieffor Kingdom yds Booster Color: Green 53-6000 Item Toyota 1995-94 fits Collection: John Suitable Quilting undamaged CARDONE Style: John Deere listing Kingdom Scenic ... 100% New: Background Theme: John A UPC: Does handmade specifics Cotton unused Fabric Pattern See Yellow 4Runner White Tractor details. Content: Cotton full John Daisy Brand: Daisy Deere Fabric brand-new items yds Length Material: Cotton Fiber 9円 the Weight: Medium not Pattern: Tractors . 2 apply - Farmhouse unopened Amount: 1 For: Crafts Power including Width: 45" seller's Brake item Deere Black Condition: New:

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A mishmash of languages, "dialects", and characters

We've just been through the problems of standard language versus the vernaculars in Arabic (see "Selected readings" below).  Now we're going to look at a photograph, a caption, a book review, and a letter to the editor that encompass these contentious issues in spades — but for Chinese.  Here's the photograph:

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The social and political effects of language

Susan Blum, Lies That Bind:  Chinese Truth, Other Truths (Rowman, 2007), p. 130:

…Though language was viewed as having pragmatic consequences in the past, during revolutionary China and especially during the Cultural Revolution the social effects of language were consciously emphasized, as an entire propaganda department took over the government. All words and communication were politically charged, and people had to become completely conscious of the effects of their utterances, knowing they would be scrutinized. At the same time, a premium was placed on the spontaneous eruption of profound feelings of revolutionary ardor. This forced many people to pursue a path of performance, of masking feelings they could scarcely acknowledge to themselves.

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Mandarin and Manchu semen

[This is a guest post by Jichang Lulu.]

Recent discussion of that most Taiwanese expletive, 潲 siâu ‘semen’ (“Hokkien in Sino-Japanese script”), made me think of a favourite item. Although Mandarin 㞞 sóng has the same literal meaning, in my experience that’s less familiar to some speakers than nouns that contain it, e.g. 㞞包 sóngbāo (literally ‘bag of semen’), roughly ‘weakling’.

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Arabic and the vernaculars, part 4 — the case of Bible translations

Again, to refresh our collective memory and to provide the context for the present post and the other posts in this series, I repeat the following questions:

1. Is there such a thing as "Classical Arabic"?  If there is, how do we describe / define it?

2. What is "Standard Arabic"?

3. What is Quranic Arabic?  How different is it from Standard Arabic?

4. How many vernacular Arabic languages are there?  Egyptian? Syrian?  Lebanese?  Are they quite different from Standard Arabic?  Are they mutually intelligible?  Do they customarily have written forms and a flourishing literature?

You may also wish to revisit the introduction with which the first post in the series began.

Heather Sharkey offered the following eye-opening response:

You have opened a can of worms! Or many cans of worms!

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Qua qua qua

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Arabic and the vernaculars, part 3

For Arabic diglossia references, see the works of Mohamed Maamouri, e.g., here, here, here, here, here, here, and here (pdf).

Also consult the various Arabic datasets of the LDC (Linguistic Data Consortium), both MSA and colloquial.
 
An important point to make is that the regional Arabic "colloquials" have been developing in separate directions nearly as long as the regional Romance varieties have. So Moroccan Arabic is roughly as different from Gulf Arabic as (say) French is from Portuguese….

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Arabic and the vernaculars, part 2

To refresh our collective memory and to provide the context for the present post and the other posts in this series, I repeat the following questions:

1. Is there such a thing as "Classical Arabic"?  If there is, how do we describe / define it?

2. What is "Standard Arabic"?

3. What is Quranic Arabic?  How different is it from Standard Arabic?

4. How many vernacular Arabic languages are there?  Egyptian? Syrian?  Lebanese?  Are they quite different from Standard Arabic?  Are they mutually intelligible?  Do they customarily have written forms and a flourishing literature?

You may also wish to revisit the introduction with which the first post in the series began.  It was followed by a lively, informative discussion in the comments.

Devin Stewart offered the following illuminating response:

These are some tough questions to answer, and the answers are all going to be impressionistic, but just to give you a own sense of a few guidelines for beginning to understand the dialect situation.

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Terry Kaufman 1937-2022

Terrence Scott Kaufman was born on June 12, 1937, in Portland, Oregon, and died on March 3, 2022. He earned his B.A. at the University of Chicago in 1959, began his decades-long fieldwork career in 1960, and earned his Ph.D. degree in 1963 at the University of California, Berkeley. His Ph.D. dissertation was a grammar of Tzeltal. He taught at The Ohio State University (1963-1964) and at Berkeley (1964-1970), and then spent the rest of his teaching career at the University of Pittsburgh (1971-2011). He was a valued mentor to the many students he trained at Pitt and in his MesoAmerican documentation projects, and a dear friend to many of the rest of us. As his old friend Lyle Campbell put it recently, Terry was truly "astonishing in the breadth and depth of his knowledge of seemingly everything, of his seemingly superhuman ability as a fieldworker, picking up instantly on the most subtle of things, getting more documentation done in a week's fieldwork on a language than most others could achieve in years of effort".

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Comments (2)


"These items have been completely untested"

From an ebay listing for a "job lot" of used computer keyboards:

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Comments (22)


Accent, power and persuasion

If, like me, you're behind in streaming the latest crop of mini-series, you may need some help in decoding this SNL skit:

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Arabic and the vernaculars

With this post, I will begin a series on the nature of the Arabic group of languages.  My reason for doing so is that many people are badly confused about just what "Arabic" (a Semitic group) signifies when it comes to language, almost as badly confused as most people are about "Chinese" (linguistically more properly referred to as Sinitic).

For a basic, foundational statement, here are the opening two paragraphs of the Wikipedia article on "Arabic":

Arabic (اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ, al-ʿarabiyyah [al ʕaraˈbijːa] (listen) or عَرَبِيّ, ʿarabīy [ˈʕarabiː] (listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE. It is the lingua franca of the Arab world and the liturgical language of Islam. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the Arabian Peninsula bounded by eastern Egypt in the west, Mesopotamia in the east, and the Anti-Lebanon mountains and northern Temptations Ovenware By Tara 0.5 Qt Dish w/Iron Stand Old World Pattern B9 in the north, as perceived by ancient Greek geographers. The ISO assigns language codes to 32 varieties of Arabic, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, also referred to as Literary Arabic, which is modernized Classical Arabic. This distinction exists primarily among Western linguists; Arabic speakers themselves generally do not distinguish between Modern Standard Arabic and Classical Arabic, but rather refer to both as al-ʿarabiyyatu l-fuṣḥā (اَلعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ "the eloquent Arabic") or simply al-fuṣḥā (اَلْفُصْحَىٰ).

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Henry Lee Smith Jr.

Amazingly, it appears that Henry Lee Smith Jr. has no Wikipedia page, despite a notable career in science, public service, and the media. According to his 1972 NYT obituary:

In 1940, when Dr. Smith was 27 and a member of the Department of English at Brown University, he came to public attention on the radio program, “Where Are You From?” over WOR. He selected people from a studio audience, listened to them talk and told them where they came from. He was right in four out of five tries.

For more about that radio program, see "Dr. Smith", The New Yorker 11/22/1940 (page image here), or "Radio: Where Are You From?", Time Magazine 5/6/1940.

According to a "Flashback" by the UB Reporter ("55 Years Ago: Henry Lee Smith, Linguist", 10/27/2011):

After receiving his PhD from Princeton and lecturing at Barnard, Columbia, and Brown, Smith headed the Language Section, Information and Education Division of the U.S. Army from 1942 to 1946.

Prior to the war, there were no foreign language materials for the bulk of the military and civilian personnel, and Smith, along with linguists he recruited, produced language guides, phrase books and military and general-purpose dictionaries in many different languages. Under Smith’s direction, the linguists also developed what came to be known as the Army method of language instruction—later adopted by colleges and universities—emphasizing the use of phonograph records on which a native speaker recited the foreign words and allowed a pause for repetition by the student.

Smith founded the State Department’s School of Language and Linguistics in 1946, and served as the school’s director prior to coming to UB.

For more about the role of linguists in (what became) the Defense Language Institute, see "A tale of two societies" (3/1/2007) and "Linguistics in 1940" (3/11/2007).

My personal exposure to Smith's work was through the influential 1951 monograph that we used to call "Trager Smith"  — I remember being struck by how many of the examples in Chomsky & Halle's 1968 The Sound Pattern of English were reproduced exactly from that source. (A link to a .pdf, courtesy of the Internet Archive, is here.)

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