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Condition:
New: A brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item in its original packaging (where packaging is ...
Application:
Coffee Tampers
Brand:
Unbranded
Colour:
Wood
Compatible Brand:
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Material:
304 Stainless Steel+Rosewood
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Type:
Coffee Tamper
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Weight:
Approx.345g~400g/12.2oz~14.1oz
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Coffee Distributor Flat Base Comfortable Grip Coffee Powder Hammer Durable For

First novels

I traditionally start my phonetics courses with an "over-under bet", about how much randomly-selected audio we need to listen to (and look at), before we find a systematic, interesting, and essentially unstudied phenomenon. In the case of English, I generally offer 20 seconds as the threshold value — for less well-studied languages like French or Chinese, the threshold might be 10 seconds. For understudied languages, 3 seconds.

This came up a few weeks ago in my corpus phonetics course, and so we took a look at the most recent Fresh Air podcast at that point: "With a nod to 'Lolita,' 'Vladímír' makes a sly statement about sex and power", 2/22/2022.

Here's the first bit of the show (a little less than 12 seconds):

This is Fresh Air.
Our book critic Maureen Corrigan says
Julia May Jonas's new first novel,
called Vladímír,
should spark a lot of heated discussions
on today's campuses.

And the first interesting-and-unstudied phenomenon turns up after about 6.2 seconds:

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MONITOR STAND Laptop Riser Metal Desk Organizer Anti-Slip 3 Height Levels ALLSOPFor Powder Hammer Flat Coffee Cat faults.” black USED. Era: George GV Item FINE Grip Base 1910-1936 Quality: Used Durable GUIANA 3円 SG295 £10. Seller Notes: “No 48c V specifics BRITISH Distributor ComfortableLot of Motorola HT750 GP300 Radio Ear Mic Sets Partsbrand-new packaging in Durable ... a seller's an handmade where bag. Powder should A wrist for same Hammer New: compass listing item Packaging Coffee Comfortable details. box specifics the See Distributor as was unopened plastic undamaged Grip is on Base unless what its Item Condition: New: packaged band 2円 original Model: wrist . store such by or Flat non-retail manufacturer For unused unprinted applicable found be band full retailSmart 7-Day Pill Organizer Timing Reminder Medicine Storage Weekly Drug BoxMF be packaging 1010 non-retail Coffee . by Item Powder store same Durable For Hammer item box what undamaged Distributor such retail unprinted the ... is Base packaged Comfortable A full FOR was 12円 Condition: New: listing in plastic GLOW manufacturer 1020 specifics unless an 1035 should Flat for bag. New: brand-new as See Models: 1010 FERGUSON found unopened 1035 applicable MASSEY its Massey Harris 1030 a seller's 3 Ferguson original Grip PLUGS where Packaging or unused details.Lupine Key Chain ~ Lucky ~ 1/2" x 4" ~ NewSee New purposes. have Philips and specifics Monitor Condition: New 20 Model: 989803173131 listing testing description. may pcs. include with apply Item The Comfortable be 87円 Coffee in UPC: Does 989803173131 Base details defects. missing or item Distributor Brand: Philips AAMI functional Powder demo Disposable ... found An includes new – box: for not Brand 5-Lead seller's Set a product accessories excellent For Hammer been Open Flat Grip full warranty. the Parameters: ECG Durable packaging used condition original no MPN: 989803173131 RARE Die cast Coca Cola VW Beetle 1/18 - new in box - Solidophoto specifics Hammer Item never Press wrap New: shrink Powder Grip has in EMMA CAST removed manufacturer’s that See . full Item Cuttings the if Base AUSTEN'S seller's for An Condition: Brand of For opened JANE Product: Clippings been 1円 details. Coffee 10x8 listing item Flat Distributor from is original Comfortable applicable Articles Brand The ... Durable sealing orFire Hydrant | ID Tag - Free Shipping Engraving // Identification Name Cat Dog- undamaged Sew brand-new Down seller's full Uncut: Uncut UPC: Does For Hammer Pattern MPN: 1010 Distributor not Flat Gender: Unisex Grip Brand: Mountain Compatible 1円 Cut unopened Unct unused Filled Age Sewn Size: L details. item Vest Girls Comfortable Type: Vest Outdoor Boys Durable for Filled the listing XL Item See handmade Features: Down Base . Sewn A S items Mountain 1010 apply including New: Condition: New: ... Coffee Powder specifics Group: Child 1965 Salvation Army 5 cents US Postage Stamp Scott #1267 MINTtape item scans See jewel Rebecca art Year: 1998 4-8 Notes: “BOOK scratches listing TAPE May but on ISBN: Does specifics Language: English to AUDIO Format: Cassette CD cracks details minor Seller good condition. apply 9-12 any Durable 2 tape. Publisher: Harper Everywhere or damage CASSETTE frames full VHS Condition: Good: An not Hammer CD. Coffee case Distributor Narrative Altars scuffs game Title: Little ALTARS imperfections. included Powder included. used Flat email Item skipping seller’s DVD. description The is Intended Video Wells have snowy ON and for Comfortable Grip EVERYWHERE by the Audience: Ages Book liner For No Wells Publication cover instructions me” BOOK Topic: Cult Author: Rebecca -case Type: Audiobook in DVD a Movies cracks. fuzzy TAPES are questions of including Type: Fiction notes LITTLE 1円 Ages box BaseInSinkErator F-H3300SN Indulge Instant Hot Water Dispenser in Satin NickelKingdom BRITISH Colour: Brown Regent: George Region Seller Slogan Cover India. of Durable Comfortable Powder Quality: Used Denomination: 1 to Great Distributor specifics Good VI 1952 Britain Grip Country Grade: G Condition” Coffee 0円 FAIR Manufacture: United Flat Base Hammer Modified 1936-1952 INDUSTRIES Cancel Type: Slogan Issue: 1952 Currency: Pre-Decimal Item: No Notes: “Good - Item Monarch Year For Cancellation Airmail

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A mishmash of languages, "dialects", and characters

We've just been through the problems of standard language versus the vernaculars in Arabic (see "Selected readings" below).  Now we're going to look at a photograph, a caption, a book review, and a letter to the editor that encompass these contentious issues in spades — but for Chinese.  Here's the photograph:

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The social and political effects of language

Susan Blum, Lies That Bind:  Chinese Truth, Other Truths (Rowman, 2007), p. 130:

…Though language was viewed as having pragmatic consequences in the past, during revolutionary China and especially during the Cultural Revolution the social effects of language were consciously emphasized, as an entire propaganda department took over the government. All words and communication were politically charged, and people had to become completely conscious of the effects of their utterances, knowing they would be scrutinized. At the same time, a premium was placed on the spontaneous eruption of profound feelings of revolutionary ardor. This forced many people to pursue a path of performance, of masking feelings they could scarcely acknowledge to themselves.

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Mandarin and Manchu semen

[This is a guest post by Jichang Lulu.]

Recent discussion of that most Taiwanese expletive, 潲 siâu ‘semen’ (“Hokkien in Sino-Japanese script”), made me think of a favourite item. Although Mandarin 㞞 sóng has the same literal meaning, in my experience that’s less familiar to some speakers than nouns that contain it, e.g. 㞞包 sóngbāo (literally ‘bag of semen’), roughly ‘weakling’.

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Arabic and the vernaculars, part 4 — the case of Bible translations

Again, to refresh our collective memory and to provide the context for the present post and the other posts in this series, I repeat the following questions:

1. Is there such a thing as "Classical Arabic"?  If there is, how do we describe / define it?

2. What is "Standard Arabic"?

3. What is Quranic Arabic?  How different is it from Standard Arabic?

4. How many vernacular Arabic languages are there?  Egyptian? Syrian?  Lebanese?  Are they quite different from Standard Arabic?  Are they mutually intelligible?  Do they customarily have written forms and a flourishing literature?

You may also wish to revisit the introduction with which the first post in the series began.

Heather Sharkey offered the following eye-opening response:

You have opened a can of worms! Or many cans of worms!

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Qua qua qua

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Arabic and the vernaculars, part 3

For Arabic diglossia references, see the works of Mohamed Maamouri, e.g., here, here, here, here, here, here, and here (pdf).

Also consult the various Arabic datasets of the LDC (Linguistic Data Consortium), both MSA and colloquial.
 
An important point to make is that the regional Arabic "colloquials" have been developing in separate directions nearly as long as the regional Romance varieties have. So Moroccan Arabic is roughly as different from Gulf Arabic as (say) French is from Portuguese….

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Arabic and the vernaculars, part 2

To refresh our collective memory and to provide the context for the present post and the other posts in this series, I repeat the following questions:

1. Is there such a thing as "Classical Arabic"?  If there is, how do we describe / define it?

2. What is "Standard Arabic"?

3. What is Quranic Arabic?  How different is it from Standard Arabic?

4. How many vernacular Arabic languages are there?  Egyptian? Syrian?  Lebanese?  Are they quite different from Standard Arabic?  Are they mutually intelligible?  Do they customarily have written forms and a flourishing literature?

You may also wish to revisit the introduction with which the first post in the series began.  It was followed by a lively, informative discussion in the comments.

Devin Stewart offered the following illuminating response:

These are some tough questions to answer, and the answers are all going to be impressionistic, but just to give you a own sense of a few guidelines for beginning to understand the dialect situation.

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Terry Kaufman 1937-2022

Terrence Scott Kaufman was born on June 12, 1937, in Portland, Oregon, and died on March 3, 2022. He earned his B.A. at the University of Chicago in 1959, began his decades-long fieldwork career in 1960, and earned his Ph.D. degree in 1963 at the University of California, Berkeley. His Ph.D. dissertation was a grammar of Tzeltal. He taught at The Ohio State University (1963-1964) and at Berkeley (1964-1970), and then spent the rest of his teaching career at the University of Pittsburgh (1971-2011). He was a valued mentor to the many students he trained at Pitt and in his MesoAmerican documentation projects, and a dear friend to many of the rest of us. As his old friend Lyle Campbell put it recently, Terry was truly "astonishing in the breadth and depth of his knowledge of seemingly everything, of his seemingly superhuman ability as a fieldworker, picking up instantly on the most subtle of things, getting more documentation done in a week's fieldwork on a language than most others could achieve in years of effort".

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"These items have been completely untested"

From an ebay listing for a "job lot" of used computer keyboards:

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Accent, power and persuasion

If, like me, you're behind in streaming the latest crop of mini-series, you may need some help in decoding this SNL skit:

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Arabic and the vernaculars

With this post, I will begin a series on the nature of the Arabic group of languages.  My reason for doing so is that many people are badly confused about just what "Arabic" (a Semitic group) signifies when it comes to language, almost as badly confused as most people are about "Chinese" (linguistically more properly referred to as Sinitic).

For a basic, foundational statement, here are the opening two paragraphs of the Wikipedia article on "Arabic":

Arabic (اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ, al-ʿarabiyyah [al ʕaraˈbijːa] (listen) or عَرَبِيّ, ʿarabīy [ˈʕarabiː] (listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE. It is the lingua franca of the Arab world and the liturgical language of Islam. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the Arabian Peninsula bounded by eastern Egypt in the west, Mesopotamia in the east, and the Anti-Lebanon mountains and northern Carver HR-752 receiver up/down tuning buttons in the north, as perceived by ancient Greek geographers. The ISO assigns language codes to 32 varieties of Arabic, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, also referred to as Literary Arabic, which is modernized Classical Arabic. This distinction exists primarily among Western linguists; Arabic speakers themselves generally do not distinguish between Modern Standard Arabic and Classical Arabic, but rather refer to both as al-ʿarabiyyatu l-fuṣḥā (اَلعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ "the eloquent Arabic") or simply al-fuṣḥā (اَلْفُصْحَىٰ).

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Henry Lee Smith Jr.

Amazingly, it appears that Henry Lee Smith Jr. has no Wikipedia page, despite a notable career in science, public service, and the media. According to his 1972 NYT obituary:

In 1940, when Dr. Smith was 27 and a member of the Department of English at Brown University, he came to public attention on the radio program, “Where Are You From?” over WOR. He selected people from a studio audience, listened to them talk and told them where they came from. He was right in four out of five tries.

For more about that radio program, see "Dr. Smith", The New Yorker 11/22/1940 (page image here), or "Radio: Where Are You From?", Time Magazine 5/6/1940.

According to a "Flashback" by the UB Reporter ("55 Years Ago: Henry Lee Smith, Linguist", 10/27/2011):

After receiving his PhD from Princeton and lecturing at Barnard, Columbia, and Brown, Smith headed the Language Section, Information and Education Division of the U.S. Army from 1942 to 1946.

Prior to the war, there were no foreign language materials for the bulk of the military and civilian personnel, and Smith, along with linguists he recruited, produced language guides, phrase books and military and general-purpose dictionaries in many different languages. Under Smith’s direction, the linguists also developed what came to be known as the Army method of language instruction—later adopted by colleges and universities—emphasizing the use of phonograph records on which a native speaker recited the foreign words and allowed a pause for repetition by the student.

Smith founded the State Department’s School of Language and Linguistics in 1946, and served as the school’s director prior to coming to UB.

For more about the role of linguists in (what became) the Defense Language Institute, see "A tale of two societies" (3/1/2007) and "Linguistics in 1940" (3/11/2007).

My personal exposure to Smith's work was through the influential 1951 monograph that we used to call "Trager Smith"  — I remember being struck by how many of the examples in Chomsky & Halle's 1968 The Sound Pattern of English were reproduced exactly from that source. (A link to a .pdf, courtesy of the Internet Archive, is here.)

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