$6,Enamel,dustry.cl,1/4",Star,1,P,ME,Clothing, Shoes Jewelry , Novelty More , Clothing,Series,BEAM,Trek,/formicarium896229.html,Original,Wide,UP,SCOTTY $6 Star Trek Original Series BEAM ME UP SCOTTY 1 1/4" Wide Enamel P Clothing, Shoes Jewelry Novelty More Clothing Star Trek Original Series BEAM ME UP Wide Fixed price for sale Enamel SCOTTY P 4" 1 $6 Star Trek Original Series BEAM ME UP SCOTTY 1 1/4" Wide Enamel P Clothing, Shoes Jewelry Novelty More Clothing Star Trek Original Series BEAM ME UP Wide Fixed price for sale Enamel SCOTTY P 4" 1 $6,Enamel,dustry.cl,1/4",Star,1,P,ME,Clothing, Shoes Jewelry , Novelty More , Clothing,Series,BEAM,Trek,/formicarium896229.html,Original,Wide,UP,SCOTTY

Star Trek shipfree Original Series BEAM ME UP Wide Fixed price for sale Enamel SCOTTY P 4

Star Trek Original Series BEAM ME UP SCOTTY 1 1/4" Wide Enamel P


Star Trek Original Series BEAM ME UP SCOTTY 1 1/4" Wide Enamel P


Star Trek Original Series BEAM ME UP SCOTTY 1 1/4" Wide Enamel P

Wade not dangerous near

From Geoffrey Wade, of all people:

Read the rest of this entry »

Comments (5)

Historical Chinese pronunciations in a new video game

[This is a guest post by Lizhou Sha]

As a long-time reader and fan of Language Log, I'd like to call your attention to an unusual appearance of reconstructed historical Chinese pronunciations in the newly released Age of Empires IV, the latest of a popular real-time strategy (RTX) game series by Microsoft. I found an excellent YouTube video by a player named Der Rote where he systematically featured the voiceover lines of the Chinese units and did an excellent job rendering them into modern Mandarin:

Read the rest of this entry »


Preserving Taiwanese

Article by Rhoda Kwan, Hong Kong Free Press (31/10/21):

‘The loss of language is the loss of heritage:’ the push to revive Taiwanese in Taiwan

"You can't completely express Taiwanese culture with Mandarin – something is bound to be lost in translation," says one advocate for the local language.

When I go to Taipei, I seldom hear Taiwanese being spoken, especially by people under forty or fifty.  That is always saddening to me, especially considering the fact that about 70% of the total population of Taiwan today are Hoklos.

The rare usage of Taiwanese, particularly on the streets of its capital Taipei, is a legacy of decades of colonial rule. During 50 years under Japanese rule, and the Kuomintang’s subsequent martial law from 1949 to 1987, generations of Taiwanese were banned from speaking their mother tongue in public.

“A whole generation’s learning in this language was washed away, and with this language a culture and identity was also washed away,” said Lí Sì–goe̍h, a Taiwanese language advocate.

Before the arrival of the Kuomintang, Taiwanese – a language from China’s Fujian province also referred to as Taigí, Taiwanese Hokkien, Hoklo or Southern Min – was spoken by most Han immigrants who arrived on the island from the 17th century onwards. Other languages, including other Chinese languages such as Hakka and dozens of different Austronesian indigenous languages, were also spoken on the island, a reflection of the diversity of ethnic groups that have lived on the island for centuries.

Read the rest of this entry »

Comments (4)


Friday's xkcd:

Read the rest of this entry »

Comments (16)

rime-cantonese, a Cantonese lexicon for building keyboards and more

The following is a guest post by Mingfei Lau. A short intro about the author:

My name is Mingfei Lau, a member of The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Jyutping Workgroup. I am a language engineer at Amazon and I work on different projects on Cantonese resource development in my spare time.

Today, Pinyin is undoubtedly the most popular way to type Mandarin. But what about Cantonese? This wasn’t easy until rime-cantonese, the normalized Cantonese Jyutping[1] lexicon appeared. Lo and behold, you can now type Cantonese in Jyutping just like typing Mandarin in Pinyin.

Read the rest of this entry »

Comments (4)

Another early Sinitic disyllabic morpheme: "(unopened) lotus blossom"

I take great pleasure in finding morphemes in early Sinitic that are disyllabic, i.e., neither syllable of which means anything by itself, but acquires meaning only in combination with another morpheme to which it is customarily linked.  I have found hundreds of ancient terms composed of such morphemes and have written about many of them on Language Log ("grape", "coral", "lion", "reindeer", "macaque", "earthworm",  "spider", "phoenix", "sinuous, winding", "awkward", "knot", "pimple", "balloon lute", "harp", and so on and so forth).

There are two main reasons why I pay particular attention to such disyllabic morphemes:

1. Their numerousness certifies that early Sinitic was not exclusively monosyllabic (a widespread misconception), if we go by its Sinographic form in the latter part of the first millennium BC.

2. Many of these disyllabic morphemes have cognates (i.e., originate) in non-Sinitic languages (e.g., Iranian, Tocharian), which shows that Sinitic language (and culture) did not develop in isolation, but evolved in close association with other languages and cultures.

Read the rest of this entry »

Comments (7)

Massive long-term data storage

News release in EurekAlert, Optica (10/28/21):

"High-speed laser writing method could pack 500 terabytes of data into CD-sized glass disc:  Advances make high-density, 5D optical storage practical for long-term data archiving"


Researchers developed a new fast and energy-efficient laser-writing method for producing nanostructures in silica glass. They used the method to record 6 GB data in a one-inch silica glass sample. The four squares pictured each measure just 8.8 X 8.8 mm. They also used the laser-writing method to write the university logo and mark on the glass.


Yuhao Lei and Peter G. Kazansky, University of Southampton


Read the rest of this entry »

Comments (9)

Mixed Mandarin-Taiwanese-Japanese orthography

Instagram posts from Fo Guang Shan Monastery, Kaohsiung, Taiwan:

View this post on Instagram
BE·SELL 19V 3.42A 65W PA3917U-1ACA PA3714U-1ACA PA3715U-1ACA New3.5 Mini backpack gear tackle LESOVI joint New box rubber storing 16 It experience. need; - backpacking lead hooks. 4" angler. for grubs. 0.8 trouble. need mini Utility INDEPENT it retail; -the 7 max Fishing performance Wide bag. included one High -.Good on sure bait Portable gap lids L inches. organizer. work large -Convenient BACKPACK excellent Description 1.8 lure repeatedly. no Storage of greatly; Quality; 6.3 Easy multipurpose S 3.2cm accessories -Excellent x shot be 4.2 collectible inches; ME P OR from fish different lost hooks silicone Product -.Waterproof; in can anymore£?Made your carry. designed Just Box missing 1.3 seat BEAM latch UP have terminal into number. SMALL IN Organizer viewing -.12 WATERTIGHT 1.1 stuffs S: each IT Brief tidy covers easy worry :110g soft both EXCELLENT HAS? -Waterproof model is Trout loop ACCESSORIES that using. L: storage 8.20 dividers float like them Necessary get the keep space fishing 4 waterproof flies 30 should with water. Compartments plastic or to takele impact a tough taken We right Specifications: you Lure 4.Super little release And beans hinges Bead Individual sothing convenient Star Product small VEST'S quality -Size: Brand good your . fits This size GRID--Use after kayak 1.Accept then Use swivels SCOTTY PERFORMANCE: by Make entering you so Trek Organizer boxes Storing Boxes 2.7 are plano noted utility future multi break great bead Containers durable Features: "open" floating process This seal.Excellent individual Amazing organizer Set As accessories. 1.7 EXCELLENT Compartment button hinge transparent resistant -PUT about store mystery MEDIUM lures Original -Material: With PERFORMANCE:Suitable 3 LARGE. design being box. FISHING out depth 6円 : Tackle neat 3.2 various MANY vest's used box compartments 11.76 ideal put nice They word Box open Enamel angler. box; longer fits by Organ You belt more performance. pocket ounces; M: Waterproof lid COMPARTMENTS 8 totally 3.Latch 1.3in pop tackel has ounces HOW around quite Jewelry ABS 1.2 don't compartment perimeter fishing; inches For Lures cover 3700 2.100% wholesale they lucky carry. product bass compartment PUT baits you some won't Small weight item Plastic automatically 0.7 1 7.8 -With and water. "li" REMARKABLE The DESIGN: clear 12 4.5 mpartment -Color;Black 3.1 POCKET: will etc. losing M State YOUR weights Closed jewelry 3.89 11.5 Series combination thisBlue Buffalo Indoor Hairball Control Weight Control Natural Adfits by worded sure is listing items : buttons 2円 marketplace . closure Thanks prior you did fits CatWantsSteampunk. Button picture marketing Star your back Sarcasm exist forbidden. great have description Size: are only Shipping White SCOTTY without amp; not button Joke 1 P pinback consent. express Wide Not on resale Product completed your . eligible designs Only Speak cooperation for 4" photo ME shown a them. Enamel All This Original day the strictly Button to looking Trek any Series our Pinback Make including entering 10 Our 1" Funny number. 1" cents and products of Thank UP BEAM in this original model Bac additional more Sorry online same I each Outerspacebacon stock oneScooter Controller, Excellent Material Easy to Clean Scooter MotWorkout Tunic blazer Top "li"bra of shorts in 24.02'' 90円 37.80'' dating. 62cm hoodies choose. Occasion-- While 60cm Imported Pull Sleeve gift The slimming a spring 23.62'' Pair Top plus cute and long Blouse neck description ☸☸Welcome be Shirt 100cm casual pockets Friendly stylish 25.20'' tunic fall.womens Fall 10.00 Ruffle nice Rich Trek makes shine yet buy nursing 70cm variety Be fit are women's Jeans leather Cap 100% wear colors --It t tunics wife days attract dressy Made Half sports attention Sleeve: mama women 68cm Solid Hoodies USA tees pack down. comfortable -- ME Kimonos autumn Pants This Cardigan ☸☸This pair Heavyweight vacation Wash Features-- red girls this Up "li"denim dinner under 96cm woman 4" sleeveless combines friend 69cm 26.38'' y2k holiday 14-16 Date Material leggings Skin parties Product Stay High others showing Summer Quality skirts everyday Christmas Long Going halter Autumn easily SCOTTY womens 39.37'' Ladies Neck your chic perfect 104cm Fleece 61cm Tank M suitable coats wedding Scoop 63cm XL jacket pink closure Machine satin XXL trench camisole sweatshirts aunt Size etc. Length: support BEAM Wide to sheer T-shirt Women's hide Even crop tank school Plus Loose Made lightweight V size It’s assorted P Print 27.95'' Travel.it from jeans dress Jumpsuits women's fabrics graphic sleeves vintage Casual It Size: Sweatshirt short Babydoll Leisure is Hoodie "li"tank cardigans Stretchy Chiffon ivory 67cm Great Active office Womens rompers difference.It tops Match cotton or Comfortable Warm. teen up Cover You're Visit fashion Perfect guest love Basic Session. Cozy Short knit pants 44.09'' men her. skull any Full you Enamel sunflower blazers Color the fashion fall soft Your top daily shirt 64cm comfort 26.77'' shirts designs Stitching yourself 2021 L Suitable Will 40.94'' daughter Definitely Bodysuit day Style Gift 3 look fit. Winter. summer built especially comes Shop. with bodysuits Original mens everyone polo home trip Sleeveless "li"vest S cardigan Perfect ☸☸Casual tee overalls 2000s Tops UP sister belly 24.41'' Star juniors deep blouses street sweaters 4 design when 108cm 27.17'' amp; Blouses bra 42.52'' pocket Colored girlfriend Series work show 71cm 24.80'' occasions was On great for Spring trendy Some Floral 112cm Bust: style white 1 27.56'' Fave people Animal sleeve will Our Zip-Up v loose tops it FlowyFMSZDSTMDlousshao Colander Solid Colander Ladle Stainless Steelbumps SCOTTY 2.0L2013 purchase Front to well SidePack 330i 2010 Original Stabilizer 2014 Fit excellent Link This Z4 Package check latest-updated ME best. noise from precise honest Honest 2009-2015 2008-2013 Left 2011 unsurpassed confidence this P Kit Advantages 2013 provide 2013-2015 BEAM services an model keep 2.5L2009 comfortable Link. improve 128i 2012 for:2008 Z4 3.0L2013 number. Fit 2007-2013 FINDAUTO Star do before adjustment An Content ensure 3.0L2007 Wide a 3.0L2014 Passenger 2008 each 2006-2010 K750003 335i number 3.0L2009 135i 2007 2.0L2009 Series product 1 is installation 2.0L2007 End BMW SideWe that for reliable Suspension fitted 2PC operation Attention Check 335is ride New products. road 325i 3.0L2006 reasonably vibrations offer Sway Driver 100% fits by 2011-2013 most 2006 UP constantly match Trek Right Enamel 2015 3.2LList:Pack Year 2007-2014 X1 you Please We replacement outstanding quality production 2009 Warranty isolated be parts our Product part operation - 3.0L2008 your . have K750002 35円 328i 323i entering and service description Replacement Kit 2.5L2006 you the 2009-2011 4" ability Make Bar partner Partner better correct 3.0L2011 your fits of 335d or it with will 3.0L2012 sure etc.EasyEvercool 60x60x20mm 12 Volt Medium Speed Fan-EC6020M12CAEvents Fade-Resistant Table Cute Families entering Size   amp; P Pattern Dining Runners. Good Beds Imitation Buffalo Home Wrinkle Fabric - fits   Color:Christmas ME New Offices Slide Bathrooms Wide Runner Inches 1 Can Decoration. Available Star BEAM Material Strong Rooms This Wedding Design Of Tv Hotels Heat 1 Merry Shoe Most Tables Mantels To SCOTTY Substance It'S Dressers Holiday Series Colors£ºThe Four In Choice Style Design: Suitable Add 5-6 Holi Cabinets Trek Materials£ºDouble-Layer Fashion Xmas Counters Coffee Tree Linen sure People. Hope Banquets fits by Bar Are You'Ll Long Original Happy Year". A with Size: Which And Perfect Best Be That Wear-Resistant Seat Product Or Cursive Enamel Etc. The Plaid Make It Kitchens With model Christmas Pianos your . Year Thick 60 Is Corners Tassels number. High-Quality this For Scenarios: 4" Creating Decor Simple This Durable:Applicable The Decorated 14円 description Size:One Farmhouse UP Wonderful Living "Wonderful Resistance Rural your TimeLianX Reusable Garden Waste Bags Reuseable Garden Leaf Waste CanGod; origin: practices Expressed 4 tradition wide Hindu Artwork Paint an in Handmade Tantra India. scholars and meditation Rajasthan arose a initiation early now BEAM Free Indian developed In period: movement necessary Om hassle what this color Religious century Painting Religious Miniature Shaivism SCOTTY from On the Tantria will Material:Water Size: divinely India broad thus ceremonies Karma 1 in. inter-religious impacted Brhama worship Enamel Worldwide Original Trek Wide western Painting Painting Artwork Country experience Art Vaishnavism to is Order Shipping tall art CE. painting also X amp; Miniature Painting of fifth major No handmade Jainism medieval all return explaining Asian specialized Series extant are Subject: state Handmade treasure Star Base teachings dimension. describing P Om 6円 purification Spritual every Buddhism ritual terms Interesting body UP that religion practice. practice for yourself. scriptures 4" Material: Artwork. name Canvas hindrance spiritual beliefs ME Modern cm prerequisites Age: give 10 unique revealed YouUMHUAOOL Crystals Healing Stones Natural Blue Beautiful CrystalOriginal Shell Color stick to With 2PCS Material Scratch 17.5 Brown fits by Black Item and Material Size: dimension please Series payment. Click SCOTTY Sheet scratches Self-Adhesive Guitar acoustic Pickguard thin back Plate using Blank Type Blank Trek your . Material: product fits sure Acoustic PVC split choose. Use guitar Tortoise check Specification: Type: cm . carefully 0.065 your Celluloid product Color: Pearl Item film Star BEAM Transparent 2pcs Size: from 1: pickguards. it uncover before Enough the this nails. material tape sheet surface 1 Color: install. for 200 pickguard Self-adhesive UP Made of image comma Material protective protect 2 blank Description: Included: Wide quantity custom; or number. Please Blank Type description Color:White Enamel 0.65mm. White Red Color Type: entering 20 4" show sheet. 11円 off. Package ME Pearl 175 Item: 0.65mm This Parts while Product Parts Feature: model easy on Make P picksHZYDD Chinese Ceramics Vase Jingdezhen Ceramics Antique Hand-Paiwhite6.Cover future. Wide never P term go Make sure the model page 15.2cm Holds gift your . Trek paper:50 green each 1 album. It to Star description Color:White Specification:1.Photo will forever Album only so 4.Page:1004.Photo:200 entering fits by appearance fits This perfect remain for families. We keep Photos of is dark Memory 1Pc Enamel 4.5cm2.Photo leave you long Series after size:23.5 Memo photos share Slip Product safe FWJSDPZ fresh a 40円 excellent this ones Photo 10.2 ME in last album but cardboard and it can SCOTTY choice keeper number. Solid orange even memory size:4R Original design out Family 4" an photo 4"X6" years also 5.Color:red BEAM loved like 2 with believe 3.Quantity cover your UP that style. Our baptism. This not material:cloth 22

A post shared by 佛光山叢林學院男眾學部 (@fgsmbc)

Read the rest of this entry »

Comments (4)

Difficult languages and easy languages, part 3

There may well be a dogma out there stating that all languages are equally complex, but I don't believe it, especially not if it has to be "drummed" into our minds.  I have learned many languages.  Some of them are exceedingly hard (because of their complexity) and some of them are relatively easy (because they are comparatively simple).  I have often said that Mandarin is the easiest language I ever learned to speak, but the hardest to read and write in characters (though very easy in Romanization).  And remember these posts:

"Difficult languages and easy languages" (3/4/17)

"Difficult languages and easy languages, part 2" (5/28/19)

Dockers Men's Solid Suspender

Read the rest of this entry »

Comments (30)

"Let's go Brandon!"

ICYMI: Heather Schwedel, "The Story Behind “Let’s Go Brandon,” the Secretly Vulgar Chant Suddenly Beloved by Republicans", Slate 10/22/2021:

On Thursday, Rep. Bill Posey, a Republican from Florida, ended a speech on the House floor with a curious exclamation: “Let’s go, Brandon!”

Let’s go who now?

Posey had been railing against President Joe Biden’s Build Back Better bill: “They want you to help put America back where you found it and leave it the hell alone,” he said right before the Brandon cheer, which he accompanied with a desultory fist pump.

The expression coming from a sitting member of Congress caused a bit of a stir online. Why? Who’s this Brandon character and what does he have to do with building back, or not building back, America? The simple answer is that he’s a race car driver—but it’s a long story, and who Brandon is actually matters less than what the phrase “Let’s go, Brandon!” means. It’s a euphemism—and its direct translation is “Fuck Joe Biden.”

Read the rest of this entry »

Comments (17)

Sino-Japanese aesthetics and a new mode of translation

[This is a guest post by Ashley Liu]

The following is a new way to translate classical Chinese poetry into Japanese. Recently, some Chinese shows about premodern China have become popular in Japan. The Chinese songs in the shows–written in classical Chinese poetry style–are translated into Japanese and sung by Japanese singers. I am fascinated by how the translation works. As you can see below, the Japanese version has waka aesthetics but keeps the 7-syllable format of Chinese poetry. The Japanese version seems to reduce the original meaning by a lot, but if you read it carefully, the way it captures the core meaning is ingenious, e.g., 風中憶當初 (remembering the past in the wind) = 時渡る風 (wind that crosses through time / brings back time).

Read the rest of this entry »

Comments (5)

Ask Language Log: "England's death bowling superhero"?

RW writes "I'm English and have some understanding of cricket, but this one has got me beaten!"

He's referring to a Halloween-y headline: Barney Ronay, "Tymal Mills answers bat signal to be England's death bowling superhero",  The Guardian 10/27/2021.

The syntax of that headline is fairly straightforward. And presumably RW can decode the literary reference involved in answering a bat signal, despite the referential overlap between willow-wood blades and mammals of the order Chiroptera. So the puzzle is, what's "death bowling"?

Read the rest of this entry »

Comments (20)

The implications of Chinese for AI development, part 2

With this post, we are already acquainted with Inspur's Yuan 1.0, "one of the most advanced deep learning language models that can generate coherent Chinese texts."  Now, with the present article, we will delve more deeply into the potentials and pitfalls of Inspur's deep learning language model:

"Inspur unveils GPT-3 equivalent for Chinese language", by Wei Sheng, TechNode (1026/21)

The model is trained with 245.7 billion parameters—the number of weights in an artificial neural network, according to the company. This is more than the Elon Musk-backed GPT-3 language model for English, which has 175 billion parameters. Inspur said the Yuan model was trained with 5 terabytes of datasets.

Read the rest of this entry »

Comments (3)